The purpose of regular maintenance of the excavator is to reduce the failure of the machine and prolong the service life of the machine; shorten the machine downtime; improve work efficiency and reduce operation costs. With good management of fuel, lubricating oil, water and air, failures can be reduced by 70 percent. In fact, about 70 percent of breakdowns are due to poor management.
1. Fuel management
To choose different grades of diesel according to different ambient temperatures; diesel oil can not be mixed with impurities, ash and water, otherwise it will make the fuel pump premature wear; the content of paraffin and sulfur in inferior fuel is high, which will damage the engine. After daily operation, the fuel tank should be filled with fuel to prevent water droplets from the inner wall of the tank; open the water discharge valve at the bottom of the fuel tank before daily operation; after the engine fuel is exhausted or the filter element is replaced, the air in the road must be discharged. The lowest ambient temperature is 0℃, -10℃, -20℃, -30℃. The diesel brands are 0#, -10#, -20#, -35#.
2. Management of other oils
Other oils include engine oil, hydraulic oil, gear oil, etc. Different brands and grades of oil can not be mixed; different kinds of excavator oil add different chemical or physical additives in the production process; to ensure that the oil is clean, prevent sundries (water, dust, particles, etc.) mixed; choose the label of oil according to the ambient temperature and use. When the ambient temperature is high, the oil with large viscosity should be selected. When the ambient temperature is low, the oil with small viscosity should be selected. The viscosity of gear oil is relatively large to adapt to the larger transmission load, and the viscosity of hydraulic oil is relatively small to reduce the liquid flow resistance.
3. Lubricating oil management
The use of lubricating oil (butter) can reduce the wear of the moving surface, preventing noise. Dust, sand, water and other impurities shall not be mixed with the grease when it is stored. It is recommended to use lithium-based grease G2-L1, which has good wear resistance and is suitable for heavy load conditions; when filling, try to squeeze out all the old oil and wipe it clean to prevent sand and soil adhesion.
4. Maintenance of filter element
The filter element plays the role of filtering the impurities in the oil or gas path to prevent them from invading the system and causing faults; all kinds of filter elements should be replaced regularly according to the requirements (heavy machinery service manual ); when replacing the filter element, it is necessary to check whether there is metal attached to the old filter element. If there are metal particles, timely diagnosis and improvement measures should be taken. Use pure filter elements in line with machine regulations. The filtering ability of the fake filter element is poor, and the surface of the filter layer and the quality of the material do not meet the requirements, which will seriously affect the normal use of the machine.
5. Content of regular maintenance
(1) Fuel filter element and additional fuel filter element should be replaced after 250 hours of work of the new machine; check engine valve clearance.
(2) daily maintenance; check, clean or replace the air filter element; clean the cooling system interior; check and tighten track plate bolts; check and adjust the backtension of the track; check the inlet heater; replace the bucket teeth; adjust bucket clearance; check the cleaning liquid level of the front window; check and adjust the air conditioning; clean the cab floor; replace the filter element of the breaker (optional accessories).
③ Check items before starting the engine. Check the coolant level position height (add water); check engine oil level, add oil; check the fuel level (fuel); check the hydraulic oil level (add hydraulic oil); check whether the air filter element is blocked; check the electrical wiring; check whether the horn is normal; check the bucket lubrication; check the water and sediment in the oil-water separator.
(4) Maintenance items per 100H. Boom cylinder head pin; boom foot pin; boom cylinder rod end; bucket rod cylinder head pin; boom, bucket rod connecting pin; bucket rod cylinder rod end; bucket cylinder head pin; half rod connecting pin; bucket rod, bucket cylinder rod end; bucket cylinder head pin; bucket rod connecting rod connecting pin; check the oil level in the rotating mechanism box (oil); drain water and sediment from the fuel tank.
⑤ Maintenance projects per 250H. Check the oil level in the final transmission box (add gear oil); check the battery electrolyte; replace the oil in the engine oil pan, replace the engine filter; lubricating slewing bearings (2 places); check and adjust the tension of the fan belt and air conditioner compressor belt.
⑥ Maintenance items per 500H. At the same time, every 100H and 250H maintenance projects; replace the fuel filter element; check the height of lubricating grease in rotary pinion (greased); check and clean the heat sink, oil cooler heat sink and chiller heat sink; replace the hydraulic oil filter element; replace the oil in the final transmission box (only for the first time at 500h, once after 1000h); clean the air filter inside and outside the air conditioner system; replace the filter element of the hydraulic oil vent.
⑦ maintenance items per 1000H. At the same time every 100, 250 and 500H maintenance projects; replace the oil in the rotary box; check the oil level of shock absorber housing (oil return); check all the fasteners of turbocharger; check the clearance of the turbocharger rotor; check and replace generator belt tensioning; replace the anticorrosive filter element; replace the oil in the final drive box.
⑧ Every 2000H maintenance project. First complete every 100, 250, 500 and 1000h maintenance projects; clean the hydraulic tank filter; clean and check the turbocharger; check the generator and start the motor; check engine valve clearance (and adjust); check the shock absorber.
⑨ Maintenance above 4000H. Check the water pump every 4000h. Increase the item of replacing hydraulic oil every 5000h.
⑩ Long-term storage. When the machine is stored for a long time, the working device should be placed on the ground in order to prevent the piston rod of the hydraulic cylinder from rusting. After washing and drying, the machine is stored in a dry indoor environment. If it can only be stored outdoors, the machine should be parked on a well-drained cement floor. Before storage, fill the fuel tank, lubricate all parts, replace the hydraulic oil and oil, apply a thin layer of butter to the exposed metal surface of the piston rod of the hydraulic cylinder, remove the negative terminal of the battery, or remove the battery and store it separately; add appropriate proportion of antifreeze in cooling water according to the lowest ambient temperature; start the engine once a month and operate the machine in order to lubricate the moving parts and charge the battery; turn on the air conditioning and run for 5-10 minutes.